Tuesday, May 26, 2009

Development of Polymer Banknote in South East Asia

Polymer banknotes were developed by the Reserve Bank of Australia (RBA) and the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO). Australia was the first country that issued a polymer banknote as its country currency in 1988. The main objective of developing the polymer banknote is to increase the durability of the currency and to enhance the security features against counterfeiting.

The first polymer note in South East Asia issued by Singapore in 1990 in conjunction with its 25th Anniversary of independence.

In South East Asia, Singapore was the first country that issued its first polymer banknote in August 1990. The first polymer note was issued by the Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS) in form of $50 commemorative note in conjunction with its 25th Anniversary of independence. Subsequently, the MAS has issued the polymer circulating note in the denominations of $10, $5 and $2 in the year from 2004 to 2007. A special $20 commemorative polymer note also issued together with Brunei in 2007 to commemorate the 40th anniversary of the Currency Interchangeability Agreement between both countries.

Bank of Indonesia issued its first polymer note in 1993 to commemorate the successful 25 years of Indonesian Development.

On 1 March 1993, Bank of Indonesia (BI) issued its first ever polymer note in the denomination of 50,000 Rupiah to commemorate the successful 25 years of Indonesian Development from year 1969 to 1994. The second polymer note was issued by BI in 1999 in 100,000 Rupiah as a general circulating note to increase the money supply to overcome the worried by computer Millennium Bug in year 2000.

First $1 circulating polymer banknote issued by Brunei in 1996.

Brunei was the earliest South East Asia country that issued the general circulating polymer notes or non-commemorative polymer banknote. The first circulating polymer note was issued in denomination of $1, $5 and $10 by Bank Negara Brunei in 1996. Subsequently, the higher denomination polymer notes in $50 and $100 were also issued in 2004. Brunei has completed its circulating polymer note in December 2006 with the issuance of the highest denomination notes of $500 and $10000. The $10000 note issued by Brunei is the highest face value note in the world (approximately USD6,800).

Bank of Thailand issued the 50Baht polymer banknote to commemorate the 50th Anniversary of His Majesty King Bhumibol's accession to the throne.

Thailand was the subsequent country that issued its 50 Baht commemorative polymer note in December 1996 to celebrate the 50th Anniversary of His Majesty King Bhumibol's accession to the throne. In August 1997, the Bank of Thailand issued another 50 Baht polymer note as a regular circulating banknote in the country.

1988 commemorative polymer note issued by Bank Negara Malaysia in conjunction with XVI Commonwealth Games.

Malaysia is the 5th country in South East Asia that issued its commemorative note in 1998 in conjunction with the Kuala Lumpur '98 XVI Commonwealth Games. Bank Negara Malaysia has also issued the polymer circulating note of RM5 in 2004.

The first commemorative note issued by Vietnam in conjunction with its 50th Anniversary of State Bank of Vietnam.

Vietnam issued its first commemorative polymer note in 2001 to commemorate 50th Anniversary of State Bank of Vietnam. Despite its late issuance of polymer banknote compared to other South East Asia country, Vietnam was the first country in the region that has fully converted its regular circulating banknote into polymer note. Vietnam started to issued the circulating polymer note in 2003 with the denomination of 50,000 Dong, 100,000 Dong and 500,000 Dong. It has completed its polymer series note in August 2006 with the introduction of 10,000 Dong, 20,000 Dong and 200,000 Dong. Vietnam was four months ahead of Brunei in term of completing the polymer circulating note.

Monday, May 25, 2009

Vietnam - Polymer Banknotes

Even though Vietnam was not the first Asian country that issued the first polymer note, it was the first Asian country and fourth country in the world (after Australia, New Zealand and Romania) that fully converted into polymer notes for its general circulation. Vietnam issued its first 50 Dong commemorative polymer note in summer 2001 by the State Bank of Vietnam in conjunction with its 50th Anniversary.

From December 2003 to August 2006, Vietnam issued the general circulating polymer notes in the denomination of 10000, 20000, 50000, 100000, 200000 and 500000 Dong. The front of these polymer notes feature the portrait of Ho Chi Minh, a famous Vietnamese nationalist leader and President of North Vietnam from 1954 to 1969. He led an army that won the French Indochina War from 1946 to 1954. He was also the main key personnel that led the North Vietnam's struggle to defeat the U.S. supported government in South Vietnam. The North Vietnam and South Vietnam were reunified in 1976 after the North army defeated the the South. Unfortunately, Ho Chi Minh was unable to see the victory by himself. He died seven year earlier before the reunification.

The back of these polymer notes depict the various famous buildings or scenes in Vietnam as described below. The Vietnamese words "NGAN HANG NHA NUOC VIET NAM" means "The State Bank of Vietnam". The Vietnamese words printed in the middle bottom of the notes describe the note value i.e. "MUOI NGHIN DONG" means "Ten Thousand Dong"

10,000 Dong


This 10,000 Polymer note was issued on 30 August 2006. The front features the portrait of Ho Chi Minh at the right and the Vietnamese Coat of Arms at centre left. The back depicts the petroleum industry, a developing economic sector in Vietnam. Vietnam is the third largest oil producer among the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries.

20,000 Dong


This 20,000 Dong was issued on 17 May 2006. The front features the portrait of Ho Chi Minh at the right and the Vietnamese Coat of Arms at centre left. The back depicts the Japanese covered bridge over the Thu Bon river in the ancient town of Hoi An in the Quang Nam province. The bridge was built by the Japanese in 1593 and still intact as today.

50,000 Dong


This 50,000 Dong was issued on 17 December 2003. The front features the portrait of Ho Chi Minh at the right and the Vietnamese Coat of Arms at centre left. The back depicts a pagoda, one of the pre-eminent architectural structures of Vietnam as seen in Hue, the former capital of Vietnam. Hue lies between Vietnam's two rice-growing regions, the Red River delta in the north and the Mekong delta in the south.

100,000 Dong

This 100,000 Dong was issued on 1 September 2004. The front features the portrait of Ho Chi Minh at the right and the Vietnamese Coat of Arms at centre left. The back depicts Van Mieu and Quoc Tu Giam in the centre. Van Mieu or the Temple of literature is dedicated to Confucius and is representative of Confucian ways of thought and behaviour. Founded in 1070, it is the oldest school in Vietnam, giving it the distinction of being the most significant temple in Vietnam. Quoc Tu or the National University, established in 1076, is located next to the Van Mieu temple. Nowadays used as a park, Van Mieu and Quoc Tu served as educational institutions of national significance for over eight centuries.

200,000 Dong


This 200,000 Dong was issued on 30 August 2006. The front features the portrait of Ho Chi Minh at the right and the Vietnamese Coat of Arms at centre left. The back depicts an image from the Ha Long Bay in the Quang Ninh province of North-East Vietnam. Ha Long Bay covers an area of 1,553 square kilometres and comprises 1,969 islands with great biodiversity. A part of this area has been declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site for its exceptional natural beauty and significant geomorphic and physiographic features. Ha Long, which literally translates as "the bay of descending dragons", has been called "a wonder of the earth erected towards the high sky" by a famous Vietnamese poet.

500,000 Dong


This 500,000 Dong was issued on 17 December 2003. The front features the portrait of Ho Chi Minh at the right and the Vietnamese Coat of Arms at centre left. The back depicts Ho Chi Minh’s birth place in Kim Lien village located in central Vietnam.

Sunday, May 24, 2009

Vietnam - 1987 to 1994 Series

This series of Vietnam banknote consists of ten denominations that include 100 Dong, 200 Dong, 500 Dong, 1000 Dong, 2000 Dong, 5000 Dong, 10000 Dong, 20000 Dong, 50000 Dong and 100000 Dong. They were issued in the year of 1987, 1988, 1990 and 1991. The 10000 Dong and 50000 Dong were reprinted in 1993 and 1994.

The huge gap in between the lowest denomination i.e. 100 Dong to the highest denomination of 100000 Dong was mainly due to the high inflation rate happened in Vietnam in 1980s to 1990s. Despite the huge range denominations in Vietnamese banknote, this series of banknote is still as a valid currency in Vietnam. Occasionally, smaller denominations notes i.e. 500 Dong or 1000 Dong are given as small changes during the daily transaction.

Except the 100 Dong, the front of these notes feature the portrait of Ho Chi Minh, a famous Vietnamese nationalist leader and President of North Vietnam from 1954 to 1969. The back of these notes depict the agriculture activity, industrial production, ports and scenery.

100 Dong (1991)

This 100 Dong note was printed in 1991 and was issued on 2 May 1992. The front features the Vietnamese Coat of Arms. The back illustrates Pho Minh Pagoda.

200 Dong (1987)

This 200 Dong was issued on 30 September 1987. The front features the portrait of Ho Chi Minh and the back illustrates an agriculture production.

500 Dong (1988)

This 500 Dong was printed in 1988 and was issued on 15 August 1989. The front features the portrait of Ho Chi Minh and the back illustrates the Haihong Port.

1000 Dong (1987)

This 1000 Dong was issued in 1987. The front features the portrait of Ho Chi Minh and the back illustrates the mining activity.

1000 Dong (1988)

This 1000 Dong was printed in 1988 and was issued on 20 October 1989. The front features the portrait of Ho Chi Minh and the back illustrates lumber production.

2000 Dong (1988)

This 1000 Dong was printed in 1988 and was issued on 20 October 1989. The front features the portrait of Ho Chi Minh and the back illustrates textile factory.

5000 Dong (1991)
This 5000 Dong was printed in 1991. The front features the portrait of Ho Chi Minh and the back illustrates Tri An Hydropower Plant.
10000 Dong (1990)

This 10000 Dong was printed in 1990. The front features the portrait of Ho Chi Minh and the back illustrates the scenery of Halong Bay at Hanoi.

20000 Dong (1991)

This 20000 Dong was printed in 1991. The front features the portrait of Ho Chi Minh and the back illustrates the canned food factory.

50000 Dong (1990)


This 50000 Dong was printed in 1990. The front features the portrait of Ho Chi Minh and back illustrates the Nha Rong Port.





Vietnam - 50 Dong Commemorative Note

This 50 Dong commemorative banknote was the first polymer banknote of Vietnam issued by State Bank of Vietnam in 2001 to commemorate 50th Anniversary of State Bank of Vietnam. This polymer note has a dimension of 165 x 82mm.

The front features the portrait of Ho Chi Minh (1890 - 1969), Vietnamese nationalist leader and President of North Vietnam (1954-69). He led the army that won the French Indochina War 1946 - 1954. He later led the North Vietnam's struggle to defeat the U.S. supported government in South Vietnam but died before the reunification of Vietnam in 1976. Vietnamese bronze drum, symbolising 4000 years of formation and struggle to defend the country is depicted in the center of the note.

The back features the headquarter of the State Bank of Vietnam located at Hanoi that was established in 1951. The Vietnamese words "NGAN HANG NHA NUOC VIET NAM" means "State Bank of Vietnam" and "NAM MUOI DONG" means "Fifty Dong".

The first polymer note issued by State Bank of Vietnam in conjucntion with its 50th Anniversary.

The cover and content of the 50 Dong polymer note which was issued to commemorate the 50th Anniversary of State Bank of Vietnam.

Tuesday, May 5, 2009

Indonesia - 1968 Series (Sudirman Series)

This series of Indonesia banknote was issued by Bank Indonesia from 1968 to 1970. It was the last series of Indonesia banknote with a complete denomination. This series has a highest denominations in Indonesia banknote history with a total of 11 denominations. They are 1, 21/2, 5, 10, 50, 100, 500, 1000, 5000 and 10000 Rupiah.

This series of banknote also known as Sudirman series and was printed by PN Pertjetakan Kebajoran. The series name was adopted from its front feature that depicts the portrait of Sudirman. Sudirman was the military commander of Indonesian forces during the country's fight for independence from the Dutch in the 1940s. The back of this series display the various scene of industry in Indonesia.

The denominations of 5000 and 10000 Rupiah have two different varieties in their serial number. It is learnt that these varieties came with the serial number of two and three alphabets.

1 Rupiah



2 1/2 Rupiah

5 Rupiah


10 Rupiah

25 Rupiah

50 Rupiah


100 Rupiah

500 Rupiah

1000 Rupiah

5000 Rupiah


10000 Rupiah